The 46 EFRC awards span the full range of energy research challenges described in the BES Basic Research Needs (BRN) series of workshop reports while also addressing one or more of the science grand challenges described in the BESAC report, Directing Matter and Energy: Five Challenge for Science and the Imagination (see below). Many of the EFRCs address multiple energy challenges that are linked by common scientific themes, such as interfacial chemistry for solar energy conversion and electrical energy storage or rational design of materials for multiple potential energy applications.
Grand Challenge Science
A new fundamental understanding of how nature works is necessary to direct and control matter at the quantum, atomic, and molecular levels in order to meet the global need for abundant, clean, and economical energy.
Use-inspired basic energy research in the areas of advanced nuclear systems, catalysis, clean and efficient combustion, electric energy storage, geological sequestration of CO2, materials in extreme environments, hydrogen science, biofuels, solar energy utilization, solid state lighting, and superconductivity is required to create advanced energy technologies for the 21st century.